About Us

Think Tank and Action Tank

The ILD is a unique combination of think-tank and institutional reformer fueled by its Property Rights Paradigm –that for sustainable economic growth and the rule of law to gel, widespread property rights are essential. The Institute’s mission is to assist emerging nations in integrating their poor majorities into the economic mainstream under a single rule of law. 

 

Over three decades, ILD has learned how to penetrate the shadows of developing economies, revealing new economic facts, and proposing the kind of institutional reforms that will help governments build modern, inclusive market economies. By continually refining, adapting, and updating its Property Rights paradigm, the ILD has also developed innovative applications to new global threats, such as the revolutions in the Arab world and the conflicts between indigenous peoples and international corporations over the control of valuable natural resources.

Our Origins

Hernando de Soto - ILD's President

In 1979, Hernando de Soto was running a group of small Peruvian mining companies headquartered in Lima and spending too much of his time grappling with red tape and climbing over regulatory barriers. Having been educated in Europe and having begun his business career in Switzerland, he knew that doing business need not be so burdensome. And he refused to accept the explanation that Peruvians were just not culturally cut out for business; after all, he himself was Peruvian, and he knew scores of compatriots who were as brilliant and innovative as anyone he had met in Europe. De Soto also discovered that many of his fellow businessmen in Lima were just as frustrated as he was with the legal obstacles to doing business, and several were eager to join him in his effort to find out precisely what the root of the problem was.

In 1979, Hernando de Soto was running a group of small Peruvian mining companies headquartered in Lima and spending too much of his time grappling with red tape and climbing over regulatory barriers. Having been educated in Europe and having begun his business career in Switzerland, he knew that doing business need not be so burdensome. And he refused to accept the explanation that Peruvians were just not culturally cut out for business; after all, he himself was Peruvian, and he knew scores of compatriots who were as brilliant and innovative as anyone he had met in Europe. De Soto also discovered that many of his fellow businessmen in Lima were just as frustrated as he was with the legal obstacles to doing business, and several were eager to join him in his effort to find out precisely what the root of the problem was. - See more at: http://www.ild.org.pe/about-us/our-origins#sthash.gl8tkqxl.dpufIn 1979, Hernando de Soto was running a group of small Peruvian mining companies headquartered in Lima and spending too much of his time grappling with red tape and climbing over regulatory barriers. Having been educated in Europe and having begun his business career in Switzerland, he knew that doing business need not be so burdensome. And he refused to accept the explanation that Peruvians were just not culturally cut out for business; after all, he himself was Peruvian, and he knew scores of compatriots who were as brilliant and innovative as anyone he had met in Europe. De Soto also discovered that many of his fellow businessmen in Lima were just as frustrated as he was with the legal obstacles to doing business, and several were eager to join him in his effort to find out precisely what the root of the problem was

In 1979, Hernando de Soto was running a group of small Peruvian mining companies headquartered in Lima and spending too much of his time grappling with red tape and climbing over regulatory barriers. Having been educated in Europe and having begun his business career in Switzerland, he knew that doing business need not be so burdensome.

 

 

OUR origins 2

And he refused to accept the explanation that Peruvians were just not culturally cut out for business; after all, he himself was Peruvian, and he knew scores of compatriots who were as brilliant and innovative as anyone he had met in Europe. De Soto also discovered that many of his fellow businessmen in Lima were just as frustrated as he was with the legal obstacles to doing business, and several were eager to join him in his effort to find out precisely what the root of the problem was.

Hernando de Soto - ILD's President e

Peru, in fact, had become two nations, one where the legal system bestowed privileges on a select few, and another where the majority of the Peruvian people lived and worked outside the law, according to their own local arrangements.
origins03
How large was this extralegal sector? No one in the government seemed to have a precise idea. In 1981, de Soto and his colleagues decided to form a not-for-profit organization to investigate Peru’s “shadow economy”. They called it, uncontroversially, the “Institute for Liberty and Democracy” (ILD). - See more at: http://ild.org.pe/about-us/our-origins#sthash.c1qxnro0.dpuf

Peru, in fact, had become two nations, one where the legal system bestowed privileges on a select few, and another where the majority of the Peruvian people lived and worked outside the law, according to their own local arrangements. How large was this extralegal sector? No one in the government seemed to have a precise idea. In 1981, de Soto and his colleagues decided to form a not-for-profit organization to investigate Peru’s “shadow economy”. They called it, uncontroversially, the “Institute for Liberty and Democracy”

 

Our Team

Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
President

President

Mr. de Soto is currently President of the ILD —headquartered in Lima, Peru— considered by The Economist as one of the two most important think tanks in the world. Time magazine chose him as one of the five leading Latin American innovators of the century in its special May 1999 issue "Leaders for the New Millennium", and included him among the 100 most influential people in the world in 2004.

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Hernando de Soto

Hernando de Soto

President

Mr. de Soto is currently President of the ILD —headquartered in Lima, Peru— considered by The Economist as one of the two most important think tanks in the world. Time magazine chose him as one of the five leading Latin American innovators of the century in its special May 1999 issue "Leaders for the New Millennium", and included him among the 100 most influential people in the world in 2004.

Mr. de Soto was also listed as one of 15 innovators "who will reinvent your future" according to Forbes magazine’s 85th anniversary edition. In January 2000, Entwicklung und Zusammenarbeit, the German development magazine, described Mr. de Soto as one of the most important development theoreticians of the last millennium. In his speech opening the 2004 World Economic Forum at Davos, former US President Bill Clinton described him as “the world’s most important living economist.” In October 2005, over 20,000 readers of Prospect magazine of the UK and Foreign Policy of the US ranked him among the top 13 "public intellectuals" in the world from the magazines’ joint list of 100; in April 2013, some 10,000 Prospect readers ranked him number 36 out of 65 top world thinkers.

Mr. de Soto has served as an economist for the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, as President of the Executive Committee of the Copper Exporting Countries Organization (CIPEC), as CEO of Universal Engineering Corporation (Continental Europe’s largest consulting engineering firm), as a principal of the Swiss Bank Corporation Consultant Group, and as a governor of Peru’s Central Reserve Bank.  In the early 1990s, he led the effort to insert Peru into the global economy; and, with his ILD team, drafted and promoted more than 187 laws that gave the poorest Peruvians access to economic opportunities, including title to their property and businesses; and created the national office of Ombudsman to defend the constitutional and human rights of the Peruvian people (Defensoría del Pueblo).

In the last 30 years, Mr. de Soto and his colleagues at the ILD have been involved in designing and implementing legal reform programs to empower the poor in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and former Soviet nations by granting them access to the same property and business rights —and the institutions and tools needed to exercise those rights and freedoms— that the majority of people in developed countries have. Over 30 heads of state have invited him to carry out these ILD programs in their countries. During the past few years, Mr. de Soto has been focusing on three new kinds of problems that have emerged around the world, which he has translated into three new strategies stemming from the ILD’s property rights paradigm: i) the financial crisis; ii) the increasing number of conflicts in developing countries between local communities and private corporations over control of mineral rich territories and agricultural lands; and, iii) the Arab Spring. At the root of each of these apparently different problems, he argues, is the lack of enforceable formal property and business rights and/or the lack of information about them.  Mr. de Soto’s reform vision and the ILD’s work in Peru, Africa and the Middle East has been featured in three one-hour documentary films broadcast throughout the US on PBS, the national public television network, and available on-line at FreetoChoose.TV:  "The Power of the Poor with Hernando de Soto (2009); "Globalization at the Crossroads with Hernando de Soto” (2011); and "Unlikely Heroes of the Arab Spring” (2013).

Mr. de Soto also co-chaired with former US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright the Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor, and currently serves as honorary co-chair on various boards and organizations, including the World Justice Project.  In 2005, the President of Peru appointed Mr. de Soto as his personal representative to design and implement Peru’s free trade program so as to give the poor access to the globalized economy; and also to draw up the strategy to convince the U.S. to sign the Free Trade Agreement with Peru, which it did in 2006.

Mr. de Soto has published two books about economic and political development: The Other Path (1986) and The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else (2000).  The latter has been translated into some 30 languages, has sold over 2,000,000 copies worldwide and has received 25 prizes in Europe and North America.  His work has been the subject of several books, including:  The Mystery of Capital and the Construction of Social Reality (2008), which examines the philosophical implications of Mr. de Soto’s ideas; Realizing Property Rights (2008); Hernando de Soto and Property in a Market Economy (2010), which looks at his work from the legal point of view; and from the economic perspective The World’s 12 Most Important Economists  (Die zwölf wichtigsten Ökonomen der Welt, 2007), which profiles him among a list that begins with Adam Smith and ends with recent Nobel Laureate Joseph Stiglitz; and The facts are in: The Arab Spring is a Massive Economic Revolution (2012).

Here follow some of the international recognition and prizes he has received over the past two decades or so: (2011) the Latin American Innovative American’s Award deemed him an icon and legend for his revolutionary ideas on the eradication of poverty worldwide; (2010) the Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Cabinet (Council of Ministers) by the International Scientific Committee of the Pio Manzu Centre in Italy in recognition of his contribution toward the betterment of humankind, and the Hayek Medal by the Friedrich A. von Hayek-Gesellschaft for his theories on liberal development policy ("market economy from below”) and for the appropriate implementation of his concepts by two Peruvian presidents; (2009) Honorary Member of the University Philosophical Society of Trinity College (Ireland), and the inaugural Hernando de Soto Award for Democracy by the Center of International Private Enterprise (CIPE) in recognition of his extraordinary achievements in furthering economic freedom in Peru and throughout the developing world; (2007) the PODER-BCG BUSINESS AWARD established by the Latin American business magazine Poder and the Boston Consulting Group for the "Best Anti-Poverty Initiative”, and the Humanitarian Award by Project Concern International in recognition of his work to help poor people participate in the market economy; (2006) the annual Bradley Prize by the Bradley Foundation for outstanding achievement, and The Economist Magazine’s Innovation Award for outstanding work in economics; (2005) an Honorary Degree of Doctor of Letters from the University of Buckingham (United Kingdom), The Americas Award (USA) by The Americas Foundation Inc., one of the Most Outstanding Peruvians of 2004 by the Peruvian National Assembly of University Rectors, the German Foundation for Property (Deutsche Stiftung Eigentum) prize, the Academy of Achievement's Golden Plate Award (USA), the BearingPoint, Forbes magazine’s seventh Compass Award for Strategic Direction; (2004) The Templeton Freedom Prize (USA) and The Milton Friedman Prize (USA), as well as the Royal Decoration of the Most Admirable Order of the Direkgunabhorn, 5th Class, (Thailand); (2003) the Downey Fellowship at Yale University (2002); The Goldwater Award (USA), The Adam Smith Award from the Association of Private Enterprise Education (USA), and The CARE Canada Award for Outstanding Development Thinking (Canada). (1995) The Freedom Prize (Switzerland), and (1990) The Fisher Prize (United Kingdom).

Ana Lucia Camaiora

Ana Lucía Camaiora

Legal Director

Ms. Camaiora began working with the ILD as a legal researcher in 1985, and, in addition to her role as Legal Director, she sits on the ILD Executive Committee.

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Ana Lucia Camaiora

Ana Lucía Camaiora

Legal Director

Ms. Camaiora began working with the ILD as a legal researcher in 1985, and, in addition to her role as Legal Director, she sits on the ILD Executive Committee.

 

She is a specialist in the detection of the legal obstacles that impede access to or hinder efforts to remain within the formal sector; extralegal norms that govern economic and social activities in the informal sector; the identification and assessment of institutional deficiencies and shortcomings that limit the transparency and responsibility of government and the participation of the majorities in governmental decision making; and the design of proposed laws and procedures devised to facilitate the majority’s access to a market economy.

 

She has also actively participated in the dissemination of ILD ideas and proposals as well as the design and execution of ILD projects in Peru, Egypt, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Tanzania, and the 12 countries comprising the ILD-IDB Project in Latin America and the Caribbean. Ms. Camaiora is currently leading the ILD’s research and proposals regarding property and business issues involving the indigenous communities of the Peruvian Amazon.

  

Ms. Camaiora has also served in a number of positions complementing her ILD work: Representative of the President of Peru in the design of the project for the Simplified Incorporation of Businesses and in the implementation of the Unified Business Registry; Member of the Presidential Commission for the implementation of Administrative Simplification in Peru; and, Legal Advisor to the Ministry of the Presidency of Peru. She is a member of the Peruvian Ministry of Employment Counsel Board.

 

Ms. Camaiora has a law degree from the Pontificia Universidad Catolica in Peru and a diploma in Legal Institutions in a Market Economy (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas). She is an Associate Professor in the Master’s Program at the Institute of Government of the Universidad San Martín de Porres.

 

Legal Director

Manuel Mayorga

Manuel Mayorga

Executive Director

A member of the Board of Directors of the ILD since 2001, Mr. Mayorga is currently Executive Director and as such is intimately involved in the overall operational activities of the ILD. He has over twenty five years of management, research and project implementation experience in infrastructure and development related programs.

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Manuel Mayorga

Manuel Mayorga

Executive Director

A member of the Board of Directors of the ILD since 2001, Mr. Mayorga is currently Executive Director and as such is intimately involved in the overall operational activities of the ILD. He has over twenty five years of management, research and project implementation experience in infrastructure and development related programs.

 

He joined the ILD in 1984 as General Manager and Chief Operating Officer. Between 1988 and 1996 he was responsible for research, planning, design, implementation and operation of ILD projects in Peru. Since 1997, he has led the design and implementation of ILD programs worldwide (Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean), along with proposal preparation, project financing, contract negotiations, overall project delivery, and presentation of deliverables to Heads of State and financial organizations.

 

Before joining the ILD, Mr. Mayorga, who began his career as an engineer, spent several years managing private and public engineering and mining/exploration organizations in Peru, such as Aurifera Sur Oriente and Contratec S.A.; MINTEC S.A. (Peruvian subsidiary of Universal Engineering Corp.-Switzerland); and the Energy Research Institute of ELECTROPERU, where he was in charge of supervising the design of the biggest power plants in Peru. He was also project engineer with German consultants Lahmayer and Salzgitter.

 

He is a graduate of the Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria in Lima with post-graduate studies in aeronautical engineering in Germany and Business Administration in Peru. He worked as a flight engineer for Lufthansa in Germany and was Associate Professor at the faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering at the Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria.

Executive Director

LUIS MORALES-BAYRO

Luis Morales-Bayro

Economics Director

Mr. Morales-Bayro has been Economics Director at ILD since 1984. He was in charge of the economic analysis for the estimates included in Hernando de Soto’s two books, The Other Path and The Mystery of Capital.

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LUIS MORALES-BAYRO

Luis Morales-Bayro

Economics Director

Mr. Morales-Bayro has been Economics Director at ILD since 1984. He was in charge of the economic analysis for the estimates included in Hernando de Soto’s two books, The Other Path and The Mystery of Capital.

 

He has applied benefit-cost analysis to identify and estimate the costs imposed by inefficient regulations which generate informality to estimate Dead Capital and to assess the net benefits of institutional reform programs. Mr. Morales-Bayro has conducted research projects in Barbados, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Tanzania and the United States.

 

Before coming to the ILD, he worked as a specialist at the Inter-American Development Bank, designing methods to evaluate the distributive impact of industrial and potable water investment projects; and as a consultant to the World Bank, advising Peru’s Ministry of Economy and Finance in efforts to create an investment office to apply economic efficiency and distributive equity criteria in the analysis of public investment.

 

Mr. Morales-Bayro holds a B.A. degree in Economics and a professional title of Commercial Engineer with a specialty in Economics from the Catholic University of Chile. He also holds a Master of Arts degree in Development Economics and completed a Ph.D. in Economics at Boston University

Economics Director

MARIA DEL CARMEN DELGADO

María del Carmen Delgado

Senior Legal Manager

Maria del Carmen Delgado has worked at the ILD since of 1985. In addition to her role as Senior Legal Manager, she is a member of the ILD Executive Committee.

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MARIA DEL CARMEN DELGADO

María del Carmen Delgado

Senior Legal Manager

Maria del Carmen Delgado has worked at the ILD since of 1985. In addition to her role as Senior Legal Manager, she is a member of the ILD Executive Committee.

 

Ms Delgado has 25 years of experience in pursuing legal research activities, designing institutional reforms, training legal teams and managing national and international programs for the capitalization of real estate and business assets of the poor and the transition towards an inclusive legal system. She has actively participated in the design, execution and management of ILD’s projects in Peru, El Salvador, Haiti, Egypt, the Philippines, Honduras, Mexico, Guatemala, Tanzania, Albania, Ethiopia and Canada, as well as in the 12 countries comprising the ILD-IDB Project in Latin America and the Caribbean. She has been part of the core team responsible for drafting required legislation and designing the strategies for building consensus to facilitate the approval of the proposed legal reform packages.

 

Ms. Delgado has also designed and taught training courses on different subjects, including The Main Reforms for the Transition towards an Inclusive Legal System, The Identification and Classification of the Main Typologies of Extralegality in Real Estate and Business, The Importance of Public Memory Systems, and the Main Obstacles to and Reforms for the Capitalization of Indigenous Communities Land Rights. These courses were designed for high level authorities, senior government officials and technicians from Tanzania, Albania, Ethiopia, Libya, India, Uganda, and Afghanistan. In addition, Ms. Delgado has represented the ILD in various national and international forums regarding property rights issues. She is currently leading the drafting of ILD’s Reform Handbook, as well as the research on the specific reforms to be detailed in the handbook’s annexes.

 

She has been Vice President of the Board of Directors at the New Real Estate Registry (1990-1996). She was responsible for leading the property reform design in Peru, setting up and managing the new registry, and issuing internal regulations to guide formalization and registration activities. This new system allowed formalizing and registering over 2 million urban properties in 15 years (1990-2005).

 

Ms. Delgado has also been Board Member of the Lima Bar Association (1995-1996), running several projects to eliminate bureaucratic barriers imposed to the citizens by the Peruvian public administration system, and to promote alternative mechanisms for conflict resolution. She has been a member of the Bar Association’s various Executive and Advisory Commissions.

 

She holds a law degree from the Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru (PUCP), where she has been an Associate Professor of Civil Law since 1990. She is also Arbitrator of the Conciliation and Arbitration Center of the PUCP. In addition, she has written a number of manuals, case-studies, essays as well as research and conference papers on property rights, and published a variety of papers on these topics in Peru and abroad.

 


Senior Legal Manager

RAFAEL ARRIBAS

Rafael Arribas

Finance and Administration Manager

Mr. Arribas is a lawyer who joined the ILD in 2008 as a legal researcher in charge of business and property rights research and project support.

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RAFAEL ARRIBAS

Rafael Arribas

Finance and Administration Manager

Mr. Arribas is a lawyer who joined the ILD in 2008 as a legal researcher in charge of business and property rights research and project support.

 

He has carried out field research and institutional analysis in Peru, Ethiopia, Mali, Nigeria, and Timor-Leste. In December 2009 he assumed the position of International Affairs Officer in charge of client/partner relations and project proposals. He was appointed Senior Consultant in September 2010. 

 

Mr. Arribas was a Senior Associate at Estudio Echecopar Abogados, specializing in corporate legal matters. He was also an Associate in the corporate finance department of Gómez-Acebo & Pombo Abogados in Madrid, Spain. He was a Foreign Intern at Holland & Knight LLP, in Miami, Florida, and an Associate at Estudio Olaechea Abogados, in Lima, Peru, were he headed the bankruptcy area of the firm.

 

Mr. Arribas has also been an Assistant Professor at Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú and at Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas. He has written a number of articles, including “Secure Property Rights to Land: The Way to Investment and Capital Formation in Developing Countries” at University of Chicago and “Invirtiendo en el Perú” at Ius et Veritas Law Review.

 

He received his law degree from the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, and completed postgraduate studies at the University of Chicago Law School, where he earned his LL.M. degree; and also holds a Legal Specialist degree from Spain’s Universidad de Alcalá de Henares . Mr. Arribas is authorized to practice law in Peru and Spain.

Finance Manager

GUSTAVO MARINI

Gustavo Marini

Manager

Mr. Marini has been at the ILD since 1994. He has managed legal and institutional reform projects around the world, developing an expertise in qualitative research techniques applied to institutional and economic subjects.

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GUSTAVO MARINI

Gustavo Marini

Manager

Mr. Marini has been at the ILD since 1994. He has managed legal and institutional reform projects around the world, developing an expertise in qualitative research techniques applied to institutional and economic subjects.

 

He has vast experience working with the extralegal sector and with grassroots organizations. He has designed and directed fieldwork activities in Peru, Haiti, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama, Mexico, Egypt, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Nigeria, Senegal, and Pakistan. He is currently working with indigenous communities in the Amazon Region of Peru.

 

Before coming to the ILD, Mr. Marini was a legal specialist at the Property Registry (Registro Predial) and became assistant to the Executive Director. He was also assistant editor of Economics and Law, a publication of El Peruano, the official gazette of Peru.

He has a law degree from the Catholic University of Peru and he has also done post-graduate studies in business administration (European School of Business) and management of social development projects (Inter- American Institute for Economic and Social Development, Inter-American Development Bank).

Manager

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